The Basics of Evidence for Fraud and Corruption Investigators

This paper briefly discusses the basic principles of evidence with which fraud and corruption investigators should be familiar, followed by their application to the proof of Corrupt and Fraudulent Practices. I. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EVIDENCE The two most important principles of evidence for investigators are relevance and weight. Relevance Probably the most fundamental rule […]

Collusive Bidding Schemes

Collusive bidding refers to agreements by contractors or suppliers in a particular trade or area to cooperate to defeat the competitive bidding process in order to inflate prices to artificially high levels.  It can occur in large and small contracts.  Where collusive bidding is well established prices can rise substantially, in some cases by as […]

The Basics of Evidence for Fraud and Corruption Investigators

This paper briefly discusses, in a non-technical way, those basic principles of evidence with which fraud and corruption investigators should be familiar, followed by their application to the elements of proof for fraud and corruption.  I.          THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EVIDENCE The two most important principles of evidence for investigators are relevance and weight. […]

Elements of Proof of Obstructive Practices

Definition “Obstructive practices” are defined as:  (aa) deliberately destroying, falsifying, altering or concealing of evidence material to the investigation or making false statements to investigators in order to materially impede an investigation into allegations of a corrupt, fraudulent, coercive or collusive practice and/or threatening, harassing or intimidating any party to prevent it from disclosing its […]

Elements of Proof of Coercive Practices

Definition IFI Guidelines define “coercive practices” as: “Impairing or harming, or threatening to impair or harm, directly or indirectly, any party or the property of the party to influence improperly the actions of a party.” Elements of proof Impairing or harming, or threatening to impair or harm Directly or indirectly Any party or the property […]

Elements of Proof of Collusive Practices

Definition IFI Guidelines define collusive practices as: “…an arrangement between two or more parties designed to achieve an improper purpose, including to influence improperly the actions of another party.” Elements of proof An arrangement between two or more parties Designed to achieve an improper purpose Including to influence improperly The actions of another party An […]

Elements of Proof of Fraudulent Practices

Definition IFI Guidelines define “Fraudulent Practices” as: “Any act or omission, including a misrepresentation, that knowingly or recklessly misleads, or attempts to mislead, a party to obtain a financial or other benefit or to avoid an obligation.” Elements of proof Any act or omission Including a misrepresentation That knowingly or recklessly misleads, or attempts to […]

Elements of Proof of Corrupt Practices

Definition IFI Guidelines define “corrupt practices” as: “Offering, giving, receiving or soliciting, directly or indirectly, of anything of value to influence improperly the actions of another party.” Elements of proof Offering, giving, receiving or soliciting Directly or indirectly Anything of value To influence improperly The actions of another party Offering, giving, receiving or soliciting An […]